Science as a social institution that has a great impact on the formation of human capital deserves special attention. Of particular importance in this context is the issue of disseminating scientific knowledge and increasing interest in science in general. The article discusses the dynamics of studying the issues of interaction between science and society. The purpose of the article is to present an overview of the main areas of sociological studies conducted by Russian researchers in the field of examining the interaction of science and society both at the federal and regional levels. The exploration of this problem is carried out by scientists from such fields of knowledge as sociology, psychology, philosophy, journalism, economics, etc. Basing on the analysis of sources, the author has revealed that sociological research in the field of studying the interaction between science and society is carried out in several main directions. These are, firstly, studies aimed at studying the level of literacy of the population. Secondly, the study of attitudes towards the scientific community. The author makes the conclusion that the main indicators of public interest in science can be the analysis of reading popular science literature, visiting popular science and special events. For example, “Science 0+”, open scientific lectures, YouTube videos, etc.